酷兔英语


The Nobel Prize for chemistry" target="_blank" title="n.化学">chemistry was awarded to a trio of scientists who came up with an elegant way to mesh together stubborncarbon atoms, an approach vital for the development of novel medicines, materials and electronics.


诺贝尔化学奖由三位科学家共同获得,他们提出了更好的聚集惰性碳原子的方法,这一方法对新兴的医药、材料和电子工业的发展非常重要。



The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences honored Richard Heck of the U.S. and Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki of Japan for developing a sophisticated chemical tool known as palladium-catalyzed cross couplings.


瑞典皇家科学院(Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences)将荣誉授予美国的赫克(Richard Heck)、日本的根岸英一(Ei-ichi Negishi)和铃木章(Akira Suzuki),他们研究出了被称为"钯催化交叉偶联反应"的精密化学方法。



The approach, which the Swedish committee described as 'great art in a test tube,' lets chemists fashion carbon-based molecules as complex as those found in nature. The three laureates did their fundamentalresearchindependently of each other, four decades ago.


评审委员会称该方法为"试管中的伟大艺术",化学家通过这种方法可架构造出与自然存在的分子同样复杂的以碳原子为基础的分子。这三位获奖者四十年前分别独立地从事该项重要的研究。



'One of our dreams was to synthesize any organiccompound of importance,' said Dr. Negishi, 75 years old, in a video interview with reporters in Stockholm. 'We believe our chemistry" target="_blank" title="n.化学">chemistry will be applicable to a wide range of compounds.'


75岁的根岸英一博士在与斯德哥尔摩记者的视频采访中说,我们的一个梦想就是合成任何一个重要的有机化合物,我们相信我们的化学方法将会适用于大量的化合物。



At the heart of the trio's work are carbon-carbon bonds, the basis of life. This aspect of chemistry" target="_blank" title="n.化学">chemistry is important enough that it accounts for a total of five Nobel prizes so far. When making an organiccompound, chemists have to join carbon atoms together. Carbon is boringly stable, so scientists deploy chemical tricks to make the atoms more reactive, allowing them to bind.


这三位科学家研究的中心命题是碳原子之间的链接,也就是生命的基础。这一领域十分重要,目前获得了共五个诺贝尔奖项。创造有机化合物时,化学家要设法将碳原子聚集在一起。而碳原子相对稳定,所以科学家们施展化学技巧使碳原子之间更容易发生反应,让它们聚集在一起。



The approach works fine when concocting simple molecules, but for complex molecules, it generates too many unwanted byproducts. That's where palladium comes in. The lustrous, silvery-white metal plays the vital role of catalyst. The three Nobel laureates showed that when the carbon atoms meet on a palladium atom, it can spark the chemicalreaction.


这一方法在合成简单的分子时没问题,但对于复杂的分子,会产生过多不需要的副产品。这时钯就发挥作用了。这种闪闪发光的银白色金属扮演重要的催化剂角色。这三位诺贝尔奖得主向人们展示了当碳原子遇上钯原子时,会催生化学反应。



'Palladium is a sort of matchmaker. It helps the atoms join hands and form a carbon bond,' said Jeremy Berg, an inorganicchemist by training and director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health.


美国国家卫生研究院(U.S. National Institutes of Health)下属的美国国家综合医学研究所(National Institute of General Medical Sciences)所长、资深无机化学家伯格(Jeremy Berg)说,钯就像是一个媒人,它促使碳原子手牵手形成碳键。



The NIGMS has funded Dr. Negishi's research with $6.5 million since the 1970s. It also supports other scientists involved in similar experiments.


美国国家综合医学研究所从20世纪70年代开始为根岸英一博士的研究提供了650万美元的资金支持,同时还支持其他从事类似研究的科学家。



Today, Dr. Negishi is a chemistry" target="_blank" title="n.化学">chemistry professor at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Ind. Dr. Suzuki, 80, is a retired professor from Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan. Dr. Heck, 79, is a professor emeritus at the University of Delaware living in the Philippines.


现在,根岸英一博士是印第安纳州普度大学(Purdue University)的化学教授。80岁的铃木章曾是日本北海道大学(Hokkaido University)教授,现已退休。79岁的赫克是美国特拉华大学(University of Delaware)的荣誉教授,现居菲律宾。



The chemical tool kit devised by the three scientists -- known variously as the Heck reaction, the Negishi reaction and the Suzuki reaction -- is now routinely used in labs around the world, as well as by industry.


这三位科学家研究出的化学方法,分别被称为赫克反应、根岸反应和铃木反应,目前被广泛应用于全世界各个实验室和各工业领域。



'It's one thing to do chemicalreactions in a lab, but when you scale it up, it gets expensive,' said Joseph Francisco, president of the American Chemical Society. 'The beauty of their work is that it's very clean chemistry" target="_blank" title="n.化学">chemistry, so you get lots of cost savings in terms of the energy used.'


美国化学学会(American Chemical Society)会长弗朗西斯科(Joseph Francisco)说,在实验室做化学反应是一回事,再上升一步就变得很昂贵了,他们的研究的美妙之处在于,这是非常纯粹的化学,因此你可以在使用能源方面节省大量成本。



Gautam Naik