15.4 祈使句

用以表示请求、命令、劝告、建议等的句子叫做祈使句(imperative sentence)。祈使句的结构与陈述句一样,但主语常省略。祈使句一般没有时态的变化,也不能与情态动词连用。


(1)Put those things back in their places. 把那些东西放回原处。

(2)Look out! There's a car coming. 当心!有车来了。

(3)Don't touch me! 不要碰我!

(4)Sit up straight, children! Don't lean over the table. 坐直,孩子们!别靠在桌子上。


(5)Fetch me a chair, won't you? 请给我拿把椅子来,好吗?(附加疑问句为否定结构)

(6)Come here, will you? 请这边来。(附加疑问句与祈使句均为肯定结构,用降调)


(7)Come in, please. 请进来。


(8)Don't be deceived by his look. 不要被他的外貌所欺骗。(否定结构)


(9)Get washed. 洗一洗吧。

(10)Get dressed. 穿好衣服吧。


(11)Be listening to this station at the same time tomorrow night. 请于明晚同一时间收听本台的广播。

(12)Start the book and have finished it before you go to bed. 开始读这本书吧,要在睡觉前把它读完。


(13)You be quite! 你安静!


(14)Don't you open the door. 你不要开门。


(15)Somebody open the door. 来个人把门打开。

(16)Parents with children go to the front. 带孩子的家长到前面去。

(17)Men in the front row take one step forward. 前排的士兵向前一步走。


(18)Don't anyone open the door. 谁也别开门。


(19)Let him be here by ten o'clock. 让他十点前到这里来。

(20)Let no one think that a teacher's life is easy. 不要让人认为教师生活是轻松的。


(21)Don't let the baby fall. 别让孩子掉下来。

let也常用于第一人称,let me表单数,let us(let's)表复数。如:

(22)Let me try. 让我试试。

(23)Let us have something iced to drink. 让我们喝点冷饮。


(24)Let's give you a hand. 让我帮帮你。


(25)Let us not talk of that matter. 让我们别谈那件事吧。

(26)Let us not say anything about it. 关于那件事,让我们什么也别说。


(27)Don't let's say anything about it. (英国英语)

(28)Let's don't say anything about it.(美国英语)


(29)Do be quiet a moment. 一定要安静一会儿。

(30)Do let me go. 一定让我去吧。


(31)Help! 救人哟!

(32)Patience! 要有耐心!

(33)Quickly! 快!

(34)Hands up! 举起手来!

15.5 感叹句

用以表示喜怒哀乐等强烈感情的句子叫做感叹句(exclamatory sentence)。感叹句句末常用感叹号,亦可用句号,一般用降调。感叹句的构成方法有三种。


(1)The house is on fire! 房子着火啦!

(2)Mother, aunt is coming! 妈妈,姑妈来啦!

(3)Have you ever seen such a thing?! 你曾见过这种事吗?!

(4)Would you believe it! The servant's broken another dish. 你信吗,仆人又打碎了一只盘子!

(5)Stop probing! 不要盘根问底了!


(6)How blue the sky is! 天空多蓝呀!

(7)How clever he is! 他多聪明呀!

(8)How quickly you walk! 你走得多快呀!

(9)How well you look! 你的气色多好呀!

(10)What delightful weather we are having! 这天气多好呀!

(11)What a foolish mistake I have made! 我犯了一个多么愚蠢的错误呀!


(12)How she sings! 她唱得多好呀!

(13)How he snores! 他的鼾声真大呀!

在感叹句中,what a用来修饰单形可数名词,what则用来修饰复形可数名词和不可数名词。如:

(14)What a tall boy he is! 他是一个多高的男孩子啊!

(15)What foolish mistakes you have made! 你犯了多么愚蠢的错误啊!

(16)What cold water you have brought me! 你给我拿来的水多凉啊!

有的不可数名词也可用what a。如:

(17)What a mess we're in! 我们这儿多乱啊!


(18)What a fine building that is! 那是一幢多么漂亮的建筑物啊!

(19)How empty and pedantic a thinker he is! 他是一个多么空虚而迂腐的思想家!


(20)Fire! 着火啦!

(21)Good heavens! 天哪!

(22)Listen! The cuckoo, Jon! 听啊!是布谷鸟,乔恩!

(23)The scent of lime flowers! 菩提花真香啊!

(24)What a hot day! 多么炎热的一天啊!

(25)How wonderful! 多妙啊!

15.6 there be结构

there be结构在英语里是一种常见的句子结构。它以引词there开始,后接动词be的各种形式,再后才是主语,主语之后又常有表时间和地点的状语。它像是一种倒装句,但它已变成为一种自然的词序。这种结构中的there本身无词义,常弱读作/δӘ /,其后的动词be具有"存在"之义,所以是一实义动词。如:

(1)There is telephone in that room. 那间屋子里有一部电话。

(2)There are many apple trees in the garden. 花园里有许多苹果树。

(3)There was a symphony concert last night. 昨晚有一场交响乐音乐会。

there be结构中的主语一般皆指不确定的事物。如:

(4)There is a lamp on the table. 桌上有一盏灯。

(5)There are some lamps on the table. 桌上有几盏灯。

(6)There is some cheese and some butter on the plate. 盘子里有一些奶酪和一些黄油。

there is常用于单形名词。如后接一系列事物而第一个事物的名称为单形可数名词时,仍应用there is。如:

(7)There is a textbook, a dictionary and some notebooks on the desk. 桌子上有一本教科书,一本字典和几本笔记。

但there is之后有时也可后接复形可数名词,这是由于说话人说出there is之后才想到后接的复形可数名词所致。如:

(8)There's some things I can't resist. 有些事物我是不能抗拒的。(正式说法应为there are)

(9)There's hundreds of people in the waiting list. 登记排队的人有好几百。(正式说法应为there are)

有时there be结构还可以在句末加副词here或there。如:

(10)There's a screwdriver here. 这里有一把螺丝刀。

(11)There are many children there. 那里有许多小孩。

there be结构可以用各种一般时态。如:

(12)There are very many English books in the library. 图书馆里有很多英文书。

(13)There was a meeting at the club yesterday. 昨天俱乐部有一个会。

(14)There will be a good wheat crop this year. 今年小麦将有一个好收成。


(15)There hasn't been any rain for some day. 几天来一直未下雨。

there be结构还可以用情态动词。如:

(16)There may be another downpour tonight. 今晚可能又有大雨。

(17)There must be something wrong. 一定出什么毛病了。

(18)There used to be a cinema here before the war. 这里战前曾有一座电影院。

there be结构还可以用被动式,这时be即变成了助动词。如:

(19)There are now published millions of books every year in China. 现在中国每年出版成百万册书。

(20)On the following day, there was held a splendid banquet. 第二天大摆盛宴。

there be结构还可以用疑问式,将be移至there之前。回答用yes或no,后接简略答语。如:

(21)-Is there a telephone in your room? 人房间有电话吗?

-Yes, there is. 是的,有。

-No, there isn't. 不,没有。

(22)-Will there be a meeting tonight? 今晚有会吗?

-Yes, there will. 是的,有。

-No, there won't. 不,没有。

(23)-Have there been any letters from Jack lately? 近是杰克有信来吗?

-Yes, there have. 是的,有。

-No, there haven't. 不,没有。

there be结构的否定式有两种构成方法。一种是将否定副词not加在be之后构成。如:

(24)There isn't a telephone in the room. 房间里没有电话。

(25)There aren't any chairs in the room. 房间里没有椅子。

(26)There wasn't any water in the bottle. 瓶子里没有水。

(27)There won't be a meeting tonight. 今晚没有会。

(28)There hasn't been any rain for ten days. 近十天一直没有雨。


(29)There is no smoking here. 这里不许抽烟。

(30)There are no books I want. 没有我需要的书。

there be结构中的主语也可以是代词。如:

(31)There's but we two. 只有我们两个人。(口语中常用宾格us,but亦应代之以only)

(32)Let's see, there's you and me.... 让我想一想,有你,我‥‥

there be结构除可用be外,还可用其它动词。如:

(33)There came a scent of lime-blossom. 飘来一阵菩提树的花香。

(34)Once upon a time there lived a king in China. 从前中国有一个国王。

(35)There appears to be a mistake. 似乎有一个错误。

there be结构中的主语之后可接不定式或从句。如:

(36)There's plenty of housework to do. 有许多家务要做。

(37)There was no one for us to talk to. 我们没有一个可说话的人。

(38)There's some people I'd like you to meet. 有几个人我希望你见见面。

there be结构与实义动词have不同,前者表"存在",后者表"所有"。试比较:

(39)There are several oak trees in the garden. 花园里有好几株橡树。(主语是oak trees)

(40)They have oak trees in the garden. 他们在花园里种有好几株橡树。(主语是they)

there be结构与表"存在"的主表结构也不一样,前者表"在什么地方有什么东西",后者表"什么东西在什么地方",着重点是"地方"。试比较:

(41)There is a lamp on the table. 桌上有一盏灯。

(42)The lamp is on the table. 灯在桌上。


(43)‵There is the book I want. 那儿就是我所要的书。(there是副词,有词义)

15.7 否定结构



(1)This is not a book. 这不是书。(否定全句This is a book.)

(2)He won't come. 他不会来。(否定全句He will come.)

(3)Don't you go? 你不去吗?(否定全句Do you go?)


(4)He is my nephew, not my son. 他是我的侄儿,不是我的儿子。(否定my son)

(5)I told him not to go out. 我叫他不要出去。(否定go out)

(6)Not knowing, I cannot say. 我不知道,所以说不上。(not否定knowing,I cannot say则是一个一般否定句


(7)I don't thing he will come. 我想他不会来。(not不是否定thing,而是否定he will come)

(8)I can't seem to get to sleep at nights. 我最近夜里简直睡不着。(= I seem not to be able to get to sleep at nights. not所否定的不是seem,而是to get to sleep at nights)

(9)All that glitters is not gold. 发光的不都是金子。(not否定的不是is,而是all)


(10)Every morning he went out early to fish, but he had made a rule not to cast his net more than four times. 他每天早上出去捕鱼,但他规定撒网不超过4次。(not所否定的不是to cast his net,而是more than four times)


(11)He don't know nothing. 他啥也不知道。(用两个否定词not和nothing强调否定)

(12)Nobody don't know we're here. 没有谁知道我们在这儿。(用两个否定词nobody和not强调否定)

(13)She said Dr. Kaplan didn't want him to have no more treatments. 她说卡普兰大夫不想再给他治疗了。(用not和no强调否定)

(14)I never got no sleep in those days. 那些日子我怎么也睡不着。(用never和no强调否定)

(15)There was not a single nook, no hiding place, no nothing. 没有一个角落,没有藏身之地,什么也没有。(用no和nothing强调否定)


(16)I cannot go, no farther. 我不能走,不能再走了。(用no表接续否定)

(17)One man cannot lift it, no, nor half a dozen. 这东西一个人是举不起的,不,六个人也不行。(用no和nor表接续否定)

(18)None of them can swim, not one. 他们都不得不会游泳,没有一个人会游泳。(用not表接续否定)

(19)I shall give the details to no one, not even to you. 个中细节我不会告诉任何人,都连你也不例外。(用not表接续否定,not常和even连用)

(20)I wouldn't let you touch me, not of I was starving. 我就是要饿死也不会让你碰我。(用not表接续否定,not常和if连用)


(21)I should worry. 我才不放在心上哩。

(22)You are telling me. 不用你说,我早知道了。(亦可译为"还用你说!")

(23)Catch me doing that again! 我决不会再犯了!

(24)He is the last man I want to see. 他是我最不愿见的人。

(25)It is a wise father that knows his own child. 无论怎样聪明的父亲也未必了解自己的孩子。


(26)I couldn't agree more. 我极赞成。

(27)He was fluent in several languages, not the least of which was Spanish. 他精通好几国语言,尤其是西班牙语。

(28)Which family doesn't have problems? 家家有一本难念的经。

(29)Isn't he stupid? 他多傻啊!

(30)You can't be too careful. 你越小心越好。


(31)-Will he die? 他会死吗?

-I hope not. 我希望不会。(=I hope he will not die. )

(32)-Can you come? 你能来吗?

-I'm afraid not. 恐怕不能。(=I'm afraid I cannot come.)

(33)They'd be bound to know if it was all right or not. 他们一定会知道它是否没有问题。(or not =or it was not all right)


(34)We can't not go. 我们不能不去。(否定词的连用)

(35)He uttered not a word. 他一言不发。(not =not a single)

(36)They are not nearly enough. 它们根本不够。(not nearly=not at all)

(37)Not that I know of. 就我所知,不是那一回事。(not that=not as far as)

(38)She ignored the common forms of behaviour. Not that she was rude. 她不理会一般行为准则。这倒不是说她粗鲁无礼。(not that=I do not say that)

(39)I'll be damned if it is true. 绝对没有这回事!(I'll be damned(或hanged)if....用于通俗口语中,表示强烈的否定)

(40)He sells books, toys and what not. 他出售书籍、玩具等等。(and what not意谓"等等")

(41)Last night not a few members were present. 昨晚有不少会员出席。(not a few=a fairly large number of)

(42)He drank not a little of the wine. 那酒他喝了不少。(drank not a little= drank a lot)

(43)The taxi is not five yards away. 那辆出租汽车离这儿不到5码。(not=less than)

(44)Rome was not built in one day. 罗马非一日建成。(not=more than)

(45)Not so bad. 很好。(=very good)


(46)I seldom see him. 我很少见到他。

(47)I can scarcely hear him. 我几乎听不见他说的话。

(48)I can hardly believe it. 我简直不能相信。

(49)We had little rain last year. 去年我们没有多少雨。

(50)He is a man of few words. 他是一个寡言少语的人。