酷兔英语

章节正文

Ⅰ 名  

    名词可分为普通名词和专有名词。 在普通名词中个体名词和集体名词为可数名词,物质名词和抽象名词为不可数名词。

    一、名词的数

    可数名词有单、复数之分, 不可数名词一般没有复数形式。

    1.不规则名词单数变为复数的方法

    1)以o结尾的词多数加es,例如:

    heroheroes  potatopotatoes  tomatotomatoes

    注:下面两类只加s

    1) 词尾为两个元音字母的词,例如:

    bamboobamboos  studiostudios  radioradios

    2) 某些外来词,例如:

    photophotos  pianopianos  kilokilos

    (2) 部分以字母f结尾的单词只加s,例如:

    roofroofs  cliffcliffs  chiefchiefs

    beliefbeliefs  gulfgulfs  hoofhoofs

    (3) 保持古英语名词复数变化形式,例如:

    manmen  oxoxen  footfeet

    (4) 保持外来语原来的变化形式,例如:

    phenomenonphenomena  criterioncriteria

    (5) 有些名词单复数同形,例如:

    sheep,  means,  aircraft,  deer,  fish,  Japanese,  Chinese  species,  series,  works (工厂、著作)

    2. 合成名词的复数构成法

    (1) 合成名词变复数,一般将它所含的主体名词变为复数,

如:

    looker-onlookers-on (旁观者)

    commander-in-chiefcommanders-in-chief (总司令)

    (2) 如果合成名词里不含名词,它的复数形式就在这合成词的词尾加s,例如:

    hold-allhold-alls (旅行袋)

    never-do-wellnever-do-wells (不成器的人)

    此外还有将所含名词全部变复数的,例如:man-servantmen-servants,  woman  teacherwomen  teachers

    3. 关于名词数的几点说明

    (1) 有些名词形式上是复数,意义上却是单数,作主语时,谓语动词要用复数。例如:

    overalls,  shorts,  scissors,  spectacles,  trousers,  shoes,  clothes,  stockings,  tongs,  tweezers

    注:此类词一般表示的是由两部分组成的物品,可用some修饰。单数常用a pair of修饰,复数用pairs of修饰,clothes除外。

    (2) 有些名词形式上是复数,实际意义上是单数,作主语时,

谓语动词要有单数形式。例如:

    news,  means,  series,  crossroads (十字路口)

    (3) 有些名词只有复数形式,没有单数形式,其复数形式有时可以表示特别的意思,作主语时,谓语动词要用复数。例如:

    goods (货物), effects (财物), papers (文件), looks (外貌), manners

(礼貌), arms (武器), riches (财富)

    (4) s结尾的学科名称以及疾病名称,常用作单数,作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

    electronics,  mathematics,  measles (麻疹), phonetics

    (5) 有些集合名词是单数形式,作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

    police,  people,  cattle,  militia,  mankind

    (6) 大多数集合名词,可用作单数(指整体),也可用作复数(指集体的成员),作主语时,谓语动词视具体情况而定。例如:

    audience,  group,  government,  public,  family,  crowd,  class,  team,  army,  union,  committee,  crew

    (7) 不可数名词前不能直接用数词,而应该加上表示单位的量词词组。例如:

    a piece of news, two cakes of soap, a sheet of paper, three pieces of chalk

    (8) 不可数名词表示若干类或表示数量之多,具有复数形式。例如:

    steelsteels (各类钢)  snowsnows (积雪)

    She told him of all her hopes and fears. (她和他谈了她的种种希望和疑虑。)

    (9) 有些抽象名词表示具体的东西,可以用复数形式。例如:

    1) When difficulties arise in one place, aids come from everywhere. (一方有难,八方支援。)

    2) After many failures, they finally succeeded. (他们经历多次失败,终于取得成功。)

    二、名词的格

    名词所有格,表示所有关系,主要用于表示有生命东西的名词,一般形式是在词尾加s来表示。

    1. 单数名词的所有格

    单数名词的所有格一般是在单数名词后面加s。例如:Xiao Lis telephone number  Xiao Lis sisters husbands mother

    2. 复数名词的所有格

    s (es) 结尾的复数名词后,只加,例如:

    the teachers reading-room  the workers club

    3. 表示无生命东西的名词也可用所有格

    (1) 用在表示时间、距离、重量或货币单位的名词上,例如:

    an hours walk  a stones throw (一箭之远)

    a pounds weight

    (2) 用在表示太阳、月亮、地球、船只、国家、城市、地方等的名词上,例如:

    the suns rays  the ships cabin  the earths surface

    (3) 在某些习惯用语中,例如:

    to ones hearts content (尽情)

    at ones wits end (智穷才竭)

    4.所有格后的名词可省略

    (1) 所有格所修饰的名词,如果前面已经提到过,为避免重复,可以省略。例如:

    This is a dictionary of mine, not comrade Lis.

    (2) 名词所有格用以指店铺或某人的家时,其后的名词常常省略而不用。例如:

    a fruiterers (一家水果店)  the Lius (刘家)

    5.关于名词词组的所有格

    (1) 如果两人共有的东西或共同创建的事业,把两人视为整体,在最后一个名词的后面加s; 如果不是共有的,则须分别加s。例如:

    Tom and Marys new invention (汤姆和玛丽的新发明)

    Johns and Dicks mothers (约翰的母亲和迪克的母亲)

    (2) 有时词组的最后一个词不是名词,但此词组是不可分割的,则s加在最后一个词上。例如:

    somebody elses book  an hour or twos time

    (3) 如有同位语,s则加在表示同位语的词上。例如:

    before his classmate Wang Lings arrival

    6. 一般用of短语表示无生命的名词的所有关系

    例如:the door of the classroom  the title of the song

    7. 表示有生命的名词的所有关系是否用of短语视情况而定

    (1) 名词前有不定冠词或代词修饰,用of短语表示所有关系。例如:

    a poem of Tom  these advantages of Wang Lan

    (2) 名词较长,为保持平衡,用of短语表示所有关系。例如:

    the works of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin

    (3) 名词有定语或从句修饰,用of短语表示所有关系。例如:

    1Do you know the name of the girl working there?

    2He is the father or the girl whom we met last night.

    8. 名词的双重所有格

    of +名词所有格或名词性物主代词”称为双重所有格。它通常用在所修饰的名词前有表示数量的词(a, two, some, any, no, many, a few 等)或有指示代词的情况下,用以表达部分观念或某种感情色彩。例如:

    1He is a friend of my fathers.

    2There is no fault of his.

    3That performance of the students was wonderful.

    类似的结构还有of ones own。例如:

    We wish we had a house of our own.

    三、名词用作形容词

    1.一个名词修饰另一个名词

   1)第一个名词说明第二个名词的来源、出处、使用或发生的地点和时间。例如:

    a traffic jam  a newspaper article  the office party  afternoon tea  a night school  a day bed

    注:当谈到具体的时间时要用s所有格,例如:

    todays newspaper  tomorrows weather

    (2) 第一个名词说明第二个名词是由什么组成的。例如:

    an iron bridge  a two-room flat

    a puzzle book (一本难题集)

    (3) 第一个名词说明第二个名词是干什么的,在什么情况下起作用或与什么有关系(有时两个名词构成一个合成词)。例如:

    a book-case  a police station  holiday plans

    a war story (一个描写战争的故事)

    (4) 第二个名词提到的是一项活动,第一个名词是活动中的承受者(即直接宾语)。例如:

    adult education  an animal trainer (驯兽师)

    (5) 第二个名词涉及第一个名词的一部分。例如:

    the car door  the river bank  the table leg

    注:1)此种情况也可用of短语,例如:

    the door of the car  the leg of the table

    2)一般情况下,如果第一个名词是有生命的,我们用s所有格来表示这种概念。例如:

    a mans leg  a boys arm  a cows horn

    2. 名词连缀用作形容词

    两个、三个或更多的名词都可以作为形容词来用,这种结构常见于报纸标题里。例如:

    1road accident research center (交通事故研究中心)

    2oil production costs (石油生产的成本)

    3.名词作形容词时数的变化

    (1) 名词作形容词时,一般都是用单数形式,即使意思是复数,通常也用单数形式。例如:

    a ticket office  a shoe shop  trouser pockets

    注:有一些例外.sports, accounts, arms, customsclothes用作形容词时没什么变化。例如:

    a sports meeting  a customs officer  a clothes shop  arms production

    (2) ics结尾的单数名词用作形容词没有任何变化。例如:

    a physics teacher  an economics degree

    (3) 带有数字的名词词组作形容词时,名词也用单数形式。例如:

    a two-day holiday  a five-mile walk  two-pound chicken

Ⅱ 代  

    代词可分为九类:人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词、指示代词、疑问代词、关系代词、连接代词、不定代词。本节主要讨论在六级考试中常出现的考点。

    一、人称代词

    1.人称代词的主要用途是用来代替名词

    在复合句的从句中或在介词短语中,常用代词来代替句中相应的名词。例如:

    1China will always do what she has promised to do.

    2In his songs, Nieh Erh aroused the patriotic feelings of the people.

    2.人称代词作表语用宾格

    人称代词作表语时,用宾格较多,特别是在口语中。例如:

    1)“Whos there?” “Its me.

    2I wouldnt do that if I were her.

    3.人称代词在强调句式中的格

    在强调句式中强调主语常用代词的主格,强调宾语用宾格。例如:

    1It was we boys who are to give orders.

    2It is her that we are talking about.

    4weus可以包括或者排除听话的人

    1Shall we go and have a drink? (we包括听话的人)

    2Were going for a drink. Would you like to come with us? (we排除听话的人)

    3Let us go for a walk, shall we? (us包括听话的人)

    4Lets go for a walk, will you? (us排除听话的人)

    二、物主代词

    物主代词是表示所有关系的,有形容词型和名词型两种。

    关于物主代词应注意以下两点:

    (1) 物主代词不能和别的限定词(如冠词或指示代词)同时使用。例如:

    不能说a my friend, the my uncle the mine

    (2) 在谈到打击、疼痛以及其他类似情况时,常用the代替物主代词,与表示身体某部分的名称连用。例如:

    1The tomato hit him in the nose.

    2She had a pain in the shoulder.

    3We took my sister by the arm.

    4She looked me in the face.

    5He was badly wounded in the leg.

    三、反身代词

    1.反身代词作同位语时的位置

    反身代词作同位语时,不一定紧跟在主导词后,可以放到句末,强调的意味最强。例如:

    The manager spoke to me himself. (经理自己亲口对我说的。)

    2.介词后面可用普通人称代词代替

    在所指明显的情况下,介词后面可以用普通人称代词来代替反身代词。例如:

    (1) She took her dog with her.

    (2) She looks after her.

    3.反身代词不能作定词

    反身代词不能作定语,可以用形容词性物主代词+own来表示这个意思。例如:

    Id like to have my own house.

    4.反身代词还可以用于某些成语

    (1) (all) by oneself自己干的(不要别人帮忙)。例如:

    They did the experiment all by themselves.

    (2) of oneself自动地。例如:

    The enemy will not perish of himself.

    (3) for oneself替(给)自己。例如:

    You have a right to decide for yourself.

    (4) in oneself本性,本身。例如:

    This is a good idea in itself.

    (5) to oneself独自享用。例如:

    When one dines in a restaurant one likes a table to oneself.

    (6) between ourselves私下说的话。例如:

    All this is between ourselves.

    (7) among themselves他们之间。例如:

    They had a heated discussion among themselves.

    四、相互代词

    相互代词是表示相互关系的一种代词,有each otherone another

    Each other指两者之间的相互关系,one another指两者以上的人与事物之间的相互关系。例如:

    1Tom and Mary frequently exchange gift with each other.

    2When science, business, and art learn something of one anothers methods and goals, the world will have come closer to cultural harmony. (当科学、商业和艺术互相对彼此的方式和目的都有所了解时,世界就会变得更为协调一致。)

    3All the students in our class always care for each other.

    4We should point out one anothers/each others short-comings.

    注:each otherone another有所有格形式:each others, one anothers, 用作定语。

    Each other可拆开用。例如:Each helps the other. (互相帮助。)

    五、指示代词

    主要有this, that, these, those以及such, same.

    1.指示代词this, thesethat, those

    (1) this, these指较近的人或物、较近的时间,以及在说话的时刻说话者自己介入的场合,that, those则相反。例如:

    1Things are quite different in these days.

    2I prefer this to that. (我喜欢这个,不喜欢那个。)

    (2) 有时英语在前一句中提到两种事物,在后一句中就用this, these指后者,用that, those指前者。例如:

    There are two classes of people: the selfish and the selfless. These are found in the working class, while those in the capitalists.

    (3) this, these常指下文将谈及的事物,而that, those常指上文所说的事物;this, these为近指,that, those为远指。例如:

    1This is what he said. (以下是他所说的。)

    2That is what he said. (这是他所说的。)

    3Work and play are both necessary to health; this gives us rest, and that gives us energy. (工作和游戏对健康都是必须的;游戏给我们休息,工作给我们活力。)

    (4) that, those常用来代替已说及的事物,以避免重复。例如:

    The bikes produced in Shanghai are better than those produced here.

    (1) suchsame作指示代词,单复数同行。在句中可作主语、定语、表语、宾语等。例如:

    1It is such a wonderful film.

    2Our views are the same.

    (2) same常与the连用。例如:

    I wish you the same.

    六、不定代词

    易混淆的常用不定代词有:some, any; each, every; none, no; other, another; both, either, neither; both, all; one, ones

    1someany

    (1) some一般用在肯定句中,any一般用在否定句和疑问句中。例如:

    1Have you any questions?

    2I have some questions.

    (2) any用在肯定句中,意思是“任何的”。例如:

    Any help you can give will be valuable.

    (3) 在带有定语从句的句子里,any后面一般跟that,而不跟whichwho。例如:

    Borrow any book that interests you.

    (4) anybut的意思是“除了…以外的任何一个”。例如:

    Ill go to any theatre but that one.

    (5) 在疑问句中表示劝导、拜托而期待肯定的回答时可以用some。例如:

    1May I give you some tea? (你喝茶吗?)

    2Will you buy me some books? (请给我买几本书好吗?)

    (6) 在否定句中,some本身的含义是肯定的。例如:

    He never writes without making some mistakes. (他每写什么总是有些错误。)

    (7) some还可用来修饰可数名词单数,表示不确定的“某一”。例如:

    You will realize it some day. (总有一天你会明白的。)

    (8) some和可数名词连用,表示“大约”。例如:

    It happened some twenty years ago.

    2eachevery

    (1) each表示个别的概念,着重于同类的个别性,every着重同类的共同性。例如:

    1Each of them had something to say.

    2Every player was on top form.

    (2) every只能作定语,each则可作主语、宾语、定语、同位语。例如:

    1Each man must do his best.

    2Each must do his best.

    (3) each后出现另外一个限定词时,要用each of, 后面接复数可数名词。例如:

    Each of my aunts gave me socks for Christmas.

    (4) 在下列习惯语中不能用each代替every。例如:

    1You have every right to say so. (你完全有权利这么说。)

    2There is every reason to think so. (那样考虑是大有原因的。)

    3noneno

    (1) none (指人或物)是与all相对的,可作主语、宾语等。它指可数名词时,动词可用单数也可用复数。例如:

    1None has escaped the net.

    2None are so deaf as those that will not hear.

    (2) the, my, you, this, that等词前面,应该用none of。例如:

    1None of my friends live near here.

    2I like none of that music.

    3None of them came in time.

    (3) none与复合不定代词no one的比较:

    no onenone都作“没有人”解,但略有区别。None往往有一固定范围,如none of them, none of the students, no one没有这种限制。例如:

    1)“Did any of my classmates come to see me?” “None.

    2)“Did any one come to see me?” “No one.

    (4) no是形容词性的代词,只能作定语。例如:

    No cigarette is completely harmless.

    (5) no修饰作表语的名词,有时有特殊含义。例如:

    He is no poet. (他算不上诗人。)

    (6) no和一个名词连用,其意思是not a或者not any。例如:

    1She had no idea what I meant.

    2Ive received no letters these days. (= Ive not received any letters these days.)

    4otheranother

    (1) other的含义是与“某一个”或“某一些”相对的“另一个”或“另一些”。other的复数形式是others, 所有格形式是othersothers。可作定语、宾语、表语,特指时前面要加冠词the。例如:

    1I dont like this one, give me the other, please. (我不喜欢这个,请给我那个。)

    2There are other ways of doing this exercise.

    3She thinks only of others good.

    4)“Four of them are in the classroom..What about the others? (特指)

    5She has more concern for others than for herself. (泛指)

    (2) another的含义是与“某一个”不同的“另一个”、“又一个”。another的前面不能加冠词,可作主语、宾语、定语。例如:

    One is old, another is young and the third is of middle age.

    (3) another后一般用单数名词,如可以说another day,不能说another days。但another后面可以跟few或带数字的复数名词。例如:

    1Ive got another three-day holiday.

    2Theres room for another few people in the back of the bus.

    (4) the other起限定性的单数代词的作用,表示两个中的另一个;another是非限定的,表示多个中的另一个。例如:

    1Take the other book, not this one. (两本书)

    2Take another book, not this one. (不止两本书)

    注:表示特指时单数用the other,复数用the other (ones) (作定语)the others (作主语、宾语)。表示泛指时单数用another, 复数用other (ones) (作定语) others (作主语、宾语)。例如:

    1Where are the other books? (特指)

    2Six of them are his; the others are mine. (特指)

    3There are other ways of doing that experiment? (泛指)

    4Some metals are magnetic and others arent. (泛指)

    5both, eitherneither

    (1) both (两个都)either (两个中的任何一个)neither (两个中任何一个都不),可以作主语、宾语、定语。both还可作同位语。例如:

    1) Both are correct.

    2) Neither is correct.

    3) Either of them is correct.

    4) Ill take them both with me.

    (2) either有时指“两者都”(= each of two),主要用于on either side, at either end等习惯用语中。例如:

    There are houses on either side of the road.

    (3) either of 后面接名词词组时,名词前须用限定词(人称代词、指示代词或冠词),谓语动词一般用单数。例如:

    Either of the children is quite capable of looking after the baby.

    (4) both的反义词是neither。例如:

    1Both of us want to go.

    2Neither of us want to go.

    6. bothall

    (1) both只能概括两个人或物,all则概括两个以上数目的人或物。例如:

    1Both countries are socialist countries.

    2All children like ice-cream.

    (2) bothall作同位语时,放在该名词或代词之后。例如:

    They both went to Beijing.

    (3) bothall一般放在be动词的后面,行为动词的前面;谓语中有助动词时,则置于助动词后。例如:

    1We are both fond of music.

    2They all study very hard.

    3They have both gone to Shanghai.

    (4) bothall都可用of结构,后面是名词时,of可省略,但若后面是人称代词时,of不能省。例如:

    1All (of) my friends like riding.

    2All of them enjoyed the party.

    (5) 如动词是否定的,一般不用all作主语,而往往以not all作主语。例如:

    Not all birds can fly.

    (6) all用于表示“全体”时,谓语动词用单数。例如:

    All that I own is yours.

    7. oneones

    (1) one用来代替单数可数名词,ones用来代替复数可数名词,以避免重复。例如:

    1Im looking for a flat. Id like one with a garden.

    2The new designs are much better than the old ones.

    注:oneones用于代替同一名称的另一件或另一些东西。Itthey则代替同一名称的同样一件或一些东西。例如:

    1) Have you found the pen lost yesterday? Yes, I have found it.

    2) Is this your pen? No, it isnt. Mine is the one on the desk.

    (2) 通常不说my one (s), your one (s)等,而说mine, yours等。但如果one (s)前有形容词,就可以和物主代词连用,也常与冠词连用。例如:

    1Your car isnt fast enough. Lets take mine.

    2Lets take your new one.

    3Id like a big one with cream on.

    (3) 在形容词最高级以及this, that, either, neither等限定词后面,one (s)可省略,而thesethose后面基本不用ones。例如:

    1I think my dog is the fastest (one).

    2Either (one) will suit me.

    (4) 在数词后面,只有用了形容词才能用ones。例如:

    I caught nine big ones.

Ⅲ 形容词和副词

    一、形容词和副词的比较等级

    1.比较结构的基本形式

    形容词和副词的比较主要是通过asasmore than结构表现出来。例如:

    1John is more/less stupid than Bob (is).

    2George is as efficient a worker as Jack (is).

    3He behaves more/less politely than Tom (does).

    4He works as hard as his father (does).

    只有在进行不同性质的比较时,比较分句才以完整的句子形式出现。例如:

    He is as brave as he is quick-witted.

    (2) 比较结构之前可以用程度状语加以修饰。如asas结构前可以用almost, nearly, just (about), quite或表示倍数的词语修饰。例如:

    1This week has been almost as rainy as last week.

    2Brick houses are nearly as common as wood houses.

    3Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.

    4My command of English is not half so (as) good as yours.

    (3) more than结构之前可以用 (so) very much, (quite) a lot, a great deal, (just) a bit, still, far, somewhat, still, far或表示倍数的词语修饰。例如:

    1This job is so much harder than my last one that Ive decided to quit.

    2Milk is a lot more nutritious than beer.

    3The new method was over ten times more efficient than the traditional one.

    4Our income was 43.5 per cent greater than in 1996.

    2. 比较结构中名词的位置

    当比较结构与名词搭配时,名词可能有三种位置:

    (1) 可以将名词置于比较结构中间,也可将比较结构作后置修饰语置于名词之后。如asas结构或more than结构与单数可数名词或不可数名词搭配:

    1I cant drink as a sweet coffee as this.

    2I cant drink coffee as sweet as this.

    (2) 当比较结构中的more, less等词为限定词时,或者当as manyas与复数可数名词搭配以及as muchas与不可数名词搭配时,或者当as much of aas, more/less of athan等结构与单数可数名词搭配时,名词只能置于比较结构中间。例如:

    1There is much less difficulty than I thought.

    2He is more of a sportsman than his brother.

    as many asas much as也能单独使用,这时many是代词,much或是代词或是副词。例如:

    1I ate as much as I could.

    2He didnt catch as many as hed hoped.

    (3) asas结构与复数可数名词搭配以及more than结构与不同类别的单复数可数名词搭配,或者受其他修饰语的限制时,这类比较结构通常置于所修饰的名词之后。例如:

    1He smokes cigarettes as expensive as he can afford.

    2Here are men more intelligent than Mary.

    3.几个比较结构的用法区别

    (1) more than结构的不同用法与意义:在一般用法中,比较级可以采用在形容词或副词前加more的形式,也可以采取形容词或副词(单音节词和少数双音节词)加词尾er的形式。当morethan作“与其…不如…”解释时,比较级只能用加more的形式,不能用加词尾er的形式。 这种用法也适用于lessthan(不…而是…)结构。例如:

    1He is more good than bad.

    2He was less hurt than frightened. (他受的伤不重,而是被吓得厉害。)

    (2) not soasnot so muchas的用法比较。试看下面两例:

    1London isnt so large as Tokyo.

    2It wasnt so much his appearance I liked as his personality.

    (3) notnomore than的连用比较。试看以下两例:

    1John is not better than Tom.

    2John is no better than Tom.

    前一例是一般的比较结构,后一例就不同了,no better than相当于as bad as, 含义是两人一样坏。这里“no +形容词”或“副词比较级+ than”所表示的可以说是该形容词或副词的相反含义。又如:

    no richer than = as poor as    no bigger than = as small as

    在某些结构中,单独使用more than也能表示否定概念。例如:

    That is more than I can tell.

    此时含义是“简直不…”。又如:

    My trip to Beijing is more than sightseeing.

    此时含义是“不仅仅是游览观光”。

    4.有比较含义的形容词的固定搭配

    在英语中,有些形容词本身就含有比较含义,有着自己的固定搭配,其后接介词to,不能接than,这类形容词有junior, senior, inferior, superior, anterior, posterior等。例如:

    1In some ways, train travel is superior to air travel.

    2He is intellectually inferior to his brother.

    5.形容词的比较级句型举例

    (1) more and more (越来越…)。例如:

    1Its becoming more and more difficult to find a job.

    2These days more and more people are learning English.

    (2) the morethe more (越是…就越)。例如:

    1The more they talked, the more encouraged they felt.

    2The busier he is, the happier he feels.

    (3) more or less (大体上,或多或少)。例如:

    1The question is more or less settled.

    2Weve succeeded in the first stage, more or less.

    (4) more (less) than (不止,不到)。例如:

    1Its more than ten years since we parted.

    2They raised yields from less than 400 tons to more than 800 tons.

    6.形容词最高级的用法要点

    (1) 形容词的最高级在使用时,前面通常要加定冠词,并有一个短语或从句表示在哪个范围内情况如此。例如:

    1The Yangtze is the biggest river in our country.

    2That was the most delicious meal Ive ever had.

    有时在形容词最高级前可以有一个状语或定语。例如:

    1She is by far the most active member in our group.

    2Its becoming the third largest industrial city in the province.

    (2) 形容词最高级有时表示“非常…”的意思,这时前面可加不定冠词或不加冠词。例如:

    1It is a most (= very) touching story.

    2The book you lent me was most interesting (= very interesting).

    (3) 如果形容词最高级前有物主代词,就不需再加定冠词了。例如:

    1Tuesday is our busiest day.

    2Fishing is his latest hobby.

    形容词最高级还可用于at ones…这种短语中。例如:

    1The peony was at its best. (牡丹花开得正盛。)

    2I knew her tone, I knew she was at her worst. (我听得出她的语气,知道她这时候心情最不好。)

    二、形容词和副词的位置

    1.形容词在句中的位置

    (1) 如果同时有几个形容词出现在名词中心词之前,一般是较长的形容词置于最后。例如:

    It was a rainy, windy, unpleasant day.

    (2) 当名词中心词之前出现几个形容词作修饰语时,一般按下列词序排列:限定词→描绘形容词→表示大小、新旧的形容词→表示颜色的形容词→表示类别的形容词→表示类别的名词(作修饰语)→名词中心词;如果出现一个以上的限定词,通常是表示特指或泛指的限定词在前,表示数量的限定词在后。例如:

    the English church

    the old English church

    the charming English church

    the towns charming English church

    the mans first two interesting little red French oil paintings

    (3) 形容词也能作后置修饰语,如在由some, any, no等构成的合成词之后。另外,当形容词本身带有不定式、介词词组等构成形容词词组的组成部分时,通常置于被修饰的名词中心词之后。例如:

    1Students brave enough to take the course deserve to succeed.

    2He is a man deserving of sympathy.

    (4) 也有在形容词词组中将形容词与其他成分拆开的情况,即将形容词置于名词中心词之前,而将形容词词组的其余部分置于名词中心词之后。这主要见于形容词词组中心词为different, similar, easy, difficult, impossible时,或者形容词为比较级或最高级形式时。例如:

    a different book from this one

    a difficult problem to solve

    the best summering place in the world

    (5) 凡能作后置修饰语的形容词或形容词词组,其含义往往相当于一个关系分句。例如:

    the members present = the members who are present

    anything interesting = anything that is interesting

    (6) 在下列结构中,形容词必须与其所修饰的名词中心词拆开,移至不定冠词之前。例如:

    1It was as pleasant a day as I have ever spent.

    2It was so warm a day that we decided to go to the sea.

    3She is too kind a girl to refuse.

    (7) enough作为名词修饰词时,既可置于名词中心词之前,又可置于其后。但当它用来修饰形容词或副词时,只能置于中心词之后。例如:

    1There is enough food for all the people here.

    2There is food enough for all the people here.

    3He is old enough to make decisions by himself.

    2. 副词在句中的位置

    (1) 副词大都可放在动词后面,如果修饰及物动词,一般放在宾语后面。例如:

    1I remember having seen him somewhere.

    2She didnt do it intentionally.

    3You shouldnt stay up too late.

    (2) 频度副词通常放在动词前面,但若句子里有情态动词、助动词或动词to be, 就放在这类动词(第一个)的后面。例如:

    1He sometimes goes there on business.

    2I hardly ever heard him singing.

    3You must always bear this in mind.

    4She is seldom ill.

    (3) 还有一些副词,如already, (not) yet, once, nearly, almost, just, really, suddenly, certainly, still, soon, surely等用法同(2)。例如:

    1I almost forgot about the whole thing.

    2She suddenly fell ill.

    3You must really be careful.

    4This is the telegram weve just received.

    (4) 疑问副词、连接副词、关系副词和一些说明整个句子的副词(例如actually, fortunately, unfortunately, evidently, accordingly, of course, first, at first, secondly, perhaps, probably, certainly, surely, originally, maybe等),通常都放在句子(或从句)的开头。例如:

    1Actually I still remember the day when we first met.

    2Maybe youre right.

    3Certainly we should try our best to help them.

    4First we must get the farm tools ready.

    (5) 有时为了对动作发生的时间更强调一些,有些时间副词如yesterday, tomorrow, last night, up to now, just now, finally, at last, now, soon, once, occasionally, usually, sometimes等,也可放在句首。例如:

    1Usually we dont go out in such weather.

    2Soon you will regret it.

    (6) 程度副词一般都放在它所修饰的词前面。例如:

    1This textbook is definitely more suitable for us than the other one.

    2I dont quite agree with you.

    (7) 有少数副词在句子里位置很灵活,常放在与它关系最密切的词前,如only, even, perhaps, exactly, soon, still等。这些副词位置的改变,在句子的意思上并不引起多大的变化。例如:

 

    Perhaps you are right. = You are perhaps right. = You are right perhaps.


生词表:
  • riches [´ritʃiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.房地产;丰富   (初中英语单词)
  • invention [in´venʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.创造;发明;虚构   (初中英语单词)
  • working [´wə:kiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.工人的;劳动的   (初中英语单词)
  • performance [pə´fɔ:məns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.履行;行为;工作   (初中英语单词)
  • traffic [´træfik] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.交通,运输   (初中英语单词)
  • puzzle [´pʌzl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.迷(惑) v.(使)迷惑   (初中英语单词)
  • holiday [´hɔlidi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.假日,假期,节日   (初中英语单词)
  • research [ri´sə:tʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&vi.调查;探究;研究   (初中英语单词)
  • manager [´mænidʒə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经理;管理人;干事   (初中英语单词)
  • perish [´periʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.灭亡;消灭;(使)死去   (初中英语单词)
  • restaurant [´restərɔnt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.饭店,菜馆   (初中英语单词)
  • discussion [di´skʌʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.讨论;辩论   (初中英语单词)
  • cultural [´kʌltʃərəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.文化(上)的;教养的   (初中英语单词)
  • harmony [´hɑ:məni] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.调合,协调,和谐   (初中英语单词)
  • selfish [´selfiʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.自私的,利己的   (初中英语单词)
  • energy [´enədʒi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.活力,精力;能力   (初中英语单词)
  • player [´pleiə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.游戏的人;选手   (初中英语单词)
  • capable [´keipəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有能力;能干的   (初中英语单词)
  • stupid [´stju:pid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.愚蠢的;糊涂的   (初中英语单词)
  • worker [´wə:kə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.工人;劳动者;工作者   (初中英语单词)
  • expensive [ik´spensiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.费钱的,昂贵的   (初中英语单词)
  • income [´inkʌm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.收入,所得   (初中英语单词)
  • sportsman [´spɔ:tsmən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.运动员;好运动的人   (初中英语单词)
  • intelligent [in´telidʒənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.聪明的;理智的   (初中英语单词)
  • learning [´lə:niŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.学习;学问;知识   (初中英语单词)
  • delicious [di´liʃəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.美味的,可口的   (初中英语单词)
  • industrial [in´dʌstriəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.工业的,产业的   (初中英语单词)
  • charming [´tʃɑ:miŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.可爱的;极好的   (初中英语单词)
  • deserve [di´zə:v] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.应受;值得   (初中英语单词)
  • telegram [´teligræm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.电报   (初中英语单词)
  • evidently [´evidəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.明显地   (初中英语单词)
  • accordingly [ə´kɔ:diŋli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.因此;从而;依照   (初中英语单词)
  • occasionally [ə´keiʒənəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.偶然地;非经常地   (初中英语单词)
  • definitely [´definitli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.明确地;绝对   (初中英语单词)
  • suitable [´su:təbəl, ´sju:-] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.合适的,适当的   (初中英语单词)
  • trainer [´treinə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.训练员,教(练)员   (高中英语单词)
  • patriotic [,pætri´ɔtik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.爱国的   (高中英语单词)
  • tomato [tə´mɑ:təu] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.西红柿,蕃茄   (高中英语单词)
  • socialist [´səuʃəlist] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.社会主义者   (高中英语单词)
  • efficient [i´fiʃənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有效的,有能力的   (高中英语单词)
  • politely [pə´laitli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.温和地;文雅地   (高中英语单词)
  • decided [di´saidid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.明显的;决定的   (高中英语单词)
  • senior [´si:niə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.年长的 n.前辈   (高中英语单词)
  • inferior [in´fiəriə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.下级的 n.下级;晚辈   (高中英语单词)
  • unpleasant [ʌn´plezənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不愉快的;不合意的   (高中英语单词)
  • fortunately [´fɔ:tʃənətli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.幸运地   (高中英语单词)
  • unfortunately [ʌn´fɔ:tʃunitli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.不幸;不朽;可惜   (高中英语单词)
  • originally [ə´ridʒənəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.本来;独创地   (高中英语单词)
  • economics [i:kə´nɔmiks, i:,-] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经济学   (英语四级单词)
  • magnetic [mæg´netik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.磁(性)的   (英语四级单词)
  • traditional [trə´diʃənəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.传统的,习惯的   (英语四级单词)
  • yangtze [´jæŋtsi:] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.长江   (英语四级单词)
  • touching [´tʌtʃiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.动人的 prep.提到   (英语四级单词)
  • secondly [´sekəndli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.第二(点);其次   (英语六级单词)



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