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文章标签:GRE  解读  GRE考试  

  ETS的政策又变了。2006年的新托福考试在中国推迟举行,已经让中国考生有些担心。于几年前酝酿的GRE改革这次又宣布终止,让中国考生更加担心ETS的政策的稳定性。为了帮助考生更好地备考,本文拟对ETS的GRE政策变化进行解读,并提供一些对策,希望有所助益。
  一、旧GRE的考试形式
  这里所说的旧GRE,指的是中国大陆实行的机考与笔试相结合的考试形式,其中写作(一篇issue,45分钟;一篇argument,30分钟)是机考,语文(verbal,包含句子填空、类比反义词与阅读)与数学(quantitative)是笔试。每年有多次写作机考,但是笔试只有两次,而且必须先参加写作机考,然后才能参加笔试。写作的满分是6分,为issue和argument两篇文章得分的平均分。语文与数学部分的满分分别为800分。
  二、原计划改革后的新GRE
  原计划改革后的GRE被称为新GRE。除了其他部分,如写作(issue要求30分钟完成)与数学部分(数量推理题难度加大)的变化以外,相对于上述的旧GRE而言,新GRE的语文部分发生了较大变化,一是取消了原来的纯粹词汇测试,即中国考生俗称为"类比反义词"的词汇部分;二是增加了新的填空题和阅读理解题。ETS之所以对GRE做如此改革,一个重要原因是为了提高考试的效度(validity)。
  三、新GRE取消的背景
  根据ETS的说法,新GRE考试计划之所以终止,是因为目前网考网络还不能充分满足新GRE考试所有考生的报考需求。ETS的GRE项目执行董事David Payne 表示:"此次取消新GRE普通考试的决定,是在斟酌考生以及使用GRE普通考试成绩作为录取依据的研究生院的利益之后做出的。经过反复讨论和评估,我们一致认为现行GRE普通考试更利于考生灵活选择考点和考试时间,同时也能够向研究生院提供评判考生研究能力的可靠标准。
  四、新GRE取消不等于没有变化
  新GRE考试计划虽然被终止了,但不等于没有变化。有两点值得注意,一个是长期变化。ETS将会"逐步开展考试改进工作",如新GRE计划在未来条件成熟时可能付诸实施。另一个是近期变化。根据ETS官方网站的说法,即使是旧GRE,也可能在写作部分的问题中做一些天衣无缝的调整(Nothing will change, with the possible exception of seamless adjustments to the Analytical Writing prompts),如对写作的要求更加具体化,而不是笼统地要求就一道是非题(issue question)发表看法或指出一个段落中的主要逻辑错误(argument),这样可以避免背诵事先准备的答案。其实这一点正是新GRE写作部分的变化。
 五、如何准备GRE考试
  由于新GRE考试计划已经终止,而且原有报名体系正在恢复,所以考生基本上可以像过去一样报名和复习GRE(如词汇方面可以继续参考胡敏主编的畅销书籍《GRE核心词汇 读故事 记单词》)。不过,对于写作部分的准备,思路可以稍做调整。一方面,仍然以ETS的issue和argument题库为主要研究对象;另一方面,分析和总结各道具体的题时,要细化考虑。例如,对于argument题库中的问题,要注意其中的逻辑推理过程,特别是其中的错误假设(assumption)。关于GRE写作以外部分的详细复习方法,请关注李传伟老师的新浪博客blog.sina.com.cn/lichuanweilaoshi。下面以GRE argument的一篇范文的一部分说明GRE写作要注意的部分(请注意划线部分,它们是ETS所要求的形式)。
  Argument问题
  Collectors prize the ancient life-size clay statues of human figures made on Kali Island but have long wondered how the Kalinese artists were able to depict bodies with such realistic precision. Since archeologists have recently discovered molds of human heads and hands on Kali, we can now conclude that the ancient Kalinese artists used molds of actual bodies, not sculpting tools and techniques, to create these statues. This discovery explains why Kalinese miniature statues were abstract and entirely different in style: molds could only be used for life-size sculptures. It also explains why few ancient Kalinese sculpting tools have been found. In light of this development, collectors should expect the life-size sculptures to decrease in value and the miniatures to increase in value.
  Argument 范文(部分)
  In this argument, the author concludes that the value of life-size Kalinese statues will decrease, while the value of miniature Kalinese statues will increase. To support his conclusion, the author cites the discovery of molds for heads and hands on large Kalinese statues, believing that this proves that no sculpting tools or techniques were used in the creation of these realistic, life-size statues. Moreover, the author cites the paucity of sculpting tools discovered by archaeologists and the fact that miniature Kalinese statues are abstract and different in style to the life-size statues as evidence that each miniature statue is unique while life-size statues are not. The author also assumes that due to mold production techniques, the life-size statues will decrease in value while individually crafted miniature Kalinese statues will increase in value. This argument suffers from several criticallogical fallacies.
  First, the author assumes that the discovery of life-size head and hand molds proves that Kalinese artists did not use sculpting tools or techniques.
  Secondly, the fact that molds have only been discovered for life-size objects does little to explain the unique production techniques used in creating Kalinese miniature statues.
  Lastly, the author fails to rule out the possibility that miniature Kalinese statues may also decrease in value.





关键字:考试动态
生词表:
  • precision [pri´siʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.精密(度) a.精确的 四级词汇
  • abstract [´æbstrækt] 移动到这儿单词发声 a.抽象的 n.提要 四级词汇
  • individually [,indi´vidʒuəli] 移动到这儿单词发声 adv.个别地 六级词汇
  • logical [´lɔdʒikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声 a.逻辑(上)的 四级词汇


文章标签:解读  GRE  GRE考试