Low-paid workers aren't the only employees facing competition
from China and India.
According to a recent report from Ernst & Young, companies in developed nations increasingly
plan to turn to emerging markets for core research
据安永(Ernst & Young)最近的一份报告，发达国家的公司越来越多地计划转向新兴市场进行核心研发。
Ernst & Young found that about 11% of companies based in North America now spend more than a quarter of their research
and development budget
in emerging markets. But within five years, more than 23% expect to have surpassed that mark.
Of companies based in Western Europe, only 7% said they conduct more than a quarter of their R&D spending in emerging markets, but about 19% plan to within five years.
Overall, 16% of respondents said they conduct more than a quarter of R&D spending in emerging markets and 28% plan to invest
to do so in five years. In the past decade
, American companies have turned from using overseas
R&D centers simply to localize products, to tapping them as a source of R&D for products globally, said Anil Gupta, a strategy
professor for the University of Maryland and author of 'Getting China and India Right.'
总体来看，有16%的受访者说，他们把四分之一以上的研发支出用在新兴市场，五年内约有28%的公司达到这个比例。马里兰大学(University of Maryland)战略学教授古普塔(Anil Gupta)说，过去10年来，美国公司不再只是利用海外研发中心来本地化产品，而是将其作为全球产品研发的源泉。他著有《企业如何正确制定中印战略》(Getting China and India Right)一书。
'China, India, and Brazil are becoming true centers of innovation
,' he said. Companies are still able to hire research
ers for about a quarter of the salary it would take in the U.S., he said. The work skills in emerging markets have also improved, as those university systems mature
, he said.
Giant home-grown companies, such as Infosys Technologies Ltd. of India, also have established comprehensive
training programs that educate
thousands of workers, said Duke University professor Vivek Wadhwa, who has visited the R&D centers of multinationals abroad
. After those workers are trained, U.S. companies snap them up for their own R&D facilities, he said.
杜克大学(Duke University)教授瓦德瓦(Vivek Wadhwa)说，印度Infosys Technologies Ltd.这样的大型本土公司也设立了综合培训项目，培训数千工人。他曾参观了多个跨国公司的海外研发中心。他说，在工人接受培训后，美国公司把他们挖过来效力于自己的研发设施。
Some companies may even be underplaying the amount
of R&D they're doing abroad
, he said. 'There is a big backlash in the U.S. whenever
you show off offshore R&D work,' he said.
Five years from now, Mr. Wadhwa said he believes Indian workers will be developing software on par with programmers in Silicon Valley.
Ernst & Young conducted the survey
of 1,050 companies in November.