Both IBM and KPMG, for example, report that their programs have helped them retain and increase their numbers of women workers.
Nonetheless, maintaining a balance between work and family still appears difficult for employees. After reaching a high in 1998, the number of working women with children under age 1 has dropped off slightly. A recent survey by the Pew Research Center of 414 women across the nation found that 60 percent of employed mothers see part-time work as the ideal scenario. That is a 12 percent jump up from a survey taken in 1997. "Women are about to quit their jobs because of this," says Cary Funk with the center. "It's more an expression of the difficulties in combining work and child-raising responsibilities in today's world." It is now not just mothers who are feeling the tug-of-war between work and family. In the last decade, the number of stay-at-home dads has tripled.45
Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, many members of minority groups have been able to realize a substantialimprovement in their social and economic wellbeing.
Increasing numbers of blacks and Hispanics are now in the upper income tax brackets by virtue of their entrance into professional, engineering, and managerial positions.
The rates climb even higher during economic downturns when employment opportunities become harder to find.
Community action agencies, civil rights organizations, and church groups within communities can provide a means for recruiters to reach inner-city residents.
Special media advertising targeted to this group also may prove effective.
Highlights in HRM 3 shows how to design a tailored approach to diversity planning.
To build ongoing relationships with prospective employees, many companies have increased their sponsorship of internship programs.
An internship program offers students an opportunity to learn on the job and gain hands-on experience.
For example, in the media industry ABC, NBC, CBS, Fox, and a host of cable companies have made substantialcontributions to the Emma L. Bowen Foundation, which provides internships, college scholarships, and postgraduate employment for minorities.
In another effort, Lockheed Martin teamed up with Operation Enterprise, the American Management Association's summer program for high school and college students, to offer ten-week paid internships to students of America's historically black colleges and universities.46
Since 1973, Inroads, Inc., an internship organization, has arranged for minority
college students to get tutoring, counseling, and summer internships with large corporations.
Inroads has 50 offices serving more than 4,500 interns at over 400 companies.
The program considers only students who graduate in the top 10 percent of their high school class.
In college, the students must maintain a 3.0 grade point average out of a possible 4.0.
Participants report that Inroads has raised their aspirations and has taught them how to adjust to the corporate world, and more than three-quarters of them end up takingpermanent jobs with companies with whom they have interned.
Benefits for the corporation include early access to talented" target="_blank" title="a.天才的；能干的">talented minorities, opportunities to hire college graduates who understand the company's business and its culture, and a greater number of minorities pursuing careers in the traditionally underrepresented fields of engineering and business.
The area of employment that has been the slowest to respond to affirmative action appeals is the advancement of minorities to middle- and top-management positions.
These companies believe that increasing the number of the minorities they hire and promote today is critical to their future success.48 The Society of Human Resources Management offers annual conferences, which offer a training and networking opportunity for HR professionals responsible for recruiting diverse workforces.
Its African-American Forum (AAF) began informally but has grown into a major initiative
Although organizations can certainly be a positive force in the development process, the primaryresponsibility for personal career growth still rests with the individual.
To help you, as students and prospective employees, achieve your career objectives, this Appendix is included to provide some background for your personal development and decisions.
Hundreds of self-help books, professional journals, and magazines have been
written on these topics or contain articles about them, and myriad opportunities to participate in workshops are available, often sponsored by employers.1 For example, the pointers on the basic skills of successful careermanagement listed in Highlights in HRM 5 are taken from a competency assessment conducted at Caterpillar
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), education, health services, and professional and business services represent the industry divisions with the strongest projected employment from now until 2016.
These industries are projected to grow twice as fast as the overall economy.
Placement offices and continuing education centers offer some type of career planning assistance.
Looking on the Internet is also a great way to jump-start your career planning.
For example, About.com's career planning Web site (careerplanning.about.com">http://careerplanning.about.com) contains a wealth of information that will help get you started.
Knowing something about an employer and industry can give you a competitive
Hoovers.com is one online source.
Corporate Web sites are another source.
Often under the "Investors" or "Media" tabs you can find press releases issued by the companies in which you are interested.
The releases often highlight the initiatives companies are pursuing and the directions in which they are taking their businesses.
Business, industry, and professional publications are a good source, too.
Simply "googling" a company can turn up a great deal of information.
Once you have landed an interview, you have the opportunity to learn more about an employer, including the type of people who work there, its corporate culture, benefits, and so forth.
If you are offered a job with the firm, a Web site such as salary.com can help you determine whether the firm's offer is appropriate.
CNNMoney.com's cost of living calculator titled "How far will my salary go in another city?" can help you figure out whether it is monetarily feasible to relocate for a job.
You should ask yourself the following questions before you accept a job offer with a particular company
Questions to Ask Yourself Before
You Accept a Job Offer
■ Have I been offered a fair salary?
Is it comparable to what other people in the same position are making?
■ Have I met my potential boss?
Does he or she seem like someone with whom I can have a good working relationship?
■ What do I know about my potential coworkers?
■ Will I be comfortable in this office environment?
■ Is the corporate culture in line with my own values, attitudes, and goals?
■ Can I handle the commute to this job?
Source: Excerpted from Dawn Rosenberg McKay, About.com . 2007 About.com, Inc., a part of
The New York Times Company.
All rights reserved.
Satisfaction with one's life is a product of many forces.
Unfortunately, when people complain about not having a good work-life balance, often the problem is not too much work, but too little "life," according to Randall Craig of Pinetree Advisors, a human resources strategy consulting firm.10 Some of the more important ingredients of "life" are physical health, emotionalwell-being, financialsecurity, harmonious interpersonal relationships, freedom from too much stress, and achievement of one's goals.
With that said, it is up to you to decide what is important to you and how to spend your work and off-the-job time.
Your life is yours to live, and it is shorter than you think.
If an employee is experiencing ambiguity and/or conflict with his or her work role, a low level of supervisory support, or disappointment due to unfulfilled work expectations, this can affect his or her family life as well.
Other sources of conflict include the need to spend an unusually large amount of time with a person's family members, either to care for children, aging elders, or a spouse.
Many employees are also actively looking for companies that have family-friendly policies.