There was a man named Sun Shan who lived in the Song Dynasty. He had a great sense of humor, and was very skilled at telling jokes. One time, he went to the capital to take civil examinations with a fellow villager's son. When the results were posted, he went to look at the list. His name Sun Shan was the very last on the list, but at least he passed. Nevertheless, his companion's name was nowhere on the list. After Sun Shan returned home, the son had not returned yet, and his father came to ask about the results. Sun Shan tactfully said:" the last name on the list is Sun Shan, your son's name is still behind Sun Shan." It suggested that your son didn't pass the exam.
幽默：(yōumò): adj. humorous
擅长：(shàncháng): v. be good at
公布：(gōngbù): v. make public
榜：(bǎng): n. published list of names
询问：(xúnwèn): v. inquire
委婉：(wěiwǎn): adj. euphemistic
落榜：(luòbǎng): v. to fail in the exam for a job or school admission
"名(míng)" is "name", "孙山(Sun Shan)" is a person's name. "名落孙山(míngluòsūnshān)" means the person's name is still after the last name of Sun Shan on the list, which indicates the person under discussion didn't make it in a test or a selection.